The Technical Center

The
Industry Resource for Specialty Textiles and Product Information
   March 29, 2017  Facebook Twitter

Technical Services | Yarn Facts

Yarn Facts

warp
THREE TECHNIQUES OF YARN SPINNING
Cotton, wool, and man-made staple products are converted to yarn by a process called spinning. Upholstery fabric yarns are spun by three basic methods:

Warp Spinning
In wrap spinning, a bundle of parallel fibers is wrapped in a spiraling fashion with other fibers. A bundle may contain 150-200 individual fibers along its length, yet not be thicker than a paper clip. Yarns spun by other methods are similar in size. Warp spinning is suitable for making strong, dense yarns.

Ring Spinning
In ring spinning a parallel bundle of fibers is tightly twisted for cohesion and strength. No wrapper fiber is needed.

openOpen End Spinning
With open end spinning the yarn has individual fibers that are not arranged as uniformly as in wrap or ring spun yarns. Most of the fibers are generally parallel, but with lots of crisscrossing, while some fiber irregularly wraps around the main bundle.

THREE MAJOR METHODS OF FABRIC CONSTRUCTION
Upholstery fabrics are constructed for durability and stability on quality furniture by three processes: Weaving, Tufting and Knitting

weavingWEAVING
Woven fabrics interlace yarns essentially at right angles. Both velvet and flatwoven constructions are used for upholstery. In velvet wovens, the plush pile is locked in by an interlocking system as shown here.

Flatwoven construction techniques range from simple basket-weaves to complex jacquard structures with patterns typical of brocade and damask.

tuftingTUFTING
In tufted material, the pile is sewn into a backing material. Tufted fabrics can be dyed to solid shades or patterns using special technology. Striped fabrics can be tufted by using colored yarns.

knittedKNITTING
Velvet fabrics knitted on a Raschel machine are similar to woven velvets except the pile tufts are locked into loops rather than a crisscrossed structure. Knitted fabrics like these are suited for furniture that requires fitting fabric over many curves.


COLORS AND FINISHING

COLORS Color is the most important attribute to consumers in choosing an upholstered piece of furniture. The colors in fabrics are infinite. They can be solids, multi-colored stripes, or other pattern effects such as florals and geometries. Dyeing of the material can be done at any stage of making the fiber, yarn, or fabric. The desired effect to be achieved will usually dictate the dyeing method.

For example, a multi-colored floral pattern requires the individual yarns to be pre-colored to as many different shades as there are in the desired pattern. The various colored yarns are then constructed into the floral pattern fabric.

By contrast, a solid color can be achieved by constructing the fabric first and then dyeing the fabric. Another way to achieve a solid color or multi-color effect would be to use pre-dyed fiber, produce the colored yarn, and then construct the fabric. This assures consistently uniform color. Printing is localized coloration that also achieves multi-colored effects.

finishingFINISHING

Finishing follows coloration. This treatment can be mechanical, chemical, or both. The mechanical treatment is done at the textile mill, prior to shipment to the furniture manufacturer. It can be one of various surface treatments. Brushing and polishing of velours, for example, can provide extra sheen and luster.

 

SPONSORS
Microban-Aegis
Antimicrobial Protection
ConceptIII
Supporting Brands
coolcore
checmical-free cooling
AEGIS EcoFresh
Rentex Mills
Connects Form with Function
BodyCare
Functional Fashion Fabrics